Among the most distinctive portraits by Diego Velazquez is one he painted of Francesco I d'Este (1610-58), the Duke of Modena, during the duke's visit to Madrid in 1638 to secure the support of Philip IV. The duke is shown in armor, wearing a red sash, his head turned toward the viewer. It is a work that conveys a quality of arrogance and sensuality, and is a high watermark in the history of baroque portraiture, while also illustrating the importance of Velázquez's portraits to Spanish diplomacy. In 1843 the painting was acquired by the Galleria Estense--one of the most prestigious of Italy's regional museums--in Modena, Italy, and it has never before been lent to an institution in the United States. This special, three-month loan coincides with the re-installation of the Metropolitan's collection of Old Master paintings. It not only makes accessible to an American public one of the least known of Velazquez's works, but also calls attention to the severe damage suffered throughout the Italian region of Emilia Romagna after a devastating earthquake in May 2012. The Galleria Estense has been temporarily closed due to the damage it sustained.